Watson & Friend (1969) studies 205 college students (145 females and 60 males). The distribution of scores was skewed, with high scores being rare; the modal score was 0. Mean scores differed by sex: males had a mean of 11.2 and females had a mean score of 8.24. Geist and Borecki (1982) also conducted a validation study with a similar college group, finding similar results. Discriminant and convergent validity from the scale was established through a correlation elf-confidence, need for affiliation, need for change, and need for dominance.
Scores consist of total raw score (from 0 to 28) and a percentile rank based on Watson and Friend’s validation sample. The overall mean for this sample was 9.11 and the standard deviation 8.01, although it should be noted that there was a strong positive skew in results. This, combined with the fact that the sample were university students, means that percentiles should be interpreted with caution. Watson & Friend divided their sample into high, average and low scorers as follows:
Low 0 or 1.
Average 2 to 11.
High 12 and up.
Generally the lower scores on the SAD are considered to be most adaptive because they are associated with self-esteem and social engagement, however, individuals who score very low on the SAD have been shown to have a higher need for social control and dominance (Geist & Borecki, 1982). Thus, very low scorers maybe resistant to prosocial activities. Higher scorers on the SADS have lower self confidence, lower need for social affiliation, low need for dominance and a high need for deference.
Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology; Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33(4),