Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES)
The RSES measures self-esteem using ten items answered on a four-point Likert-type scale -- from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The RSES is one of the most widely used measures of self-esteem (Sinclair et al., 2010). Self-esteem is not a unitary construct and has been divided equally to measure two 5-item facets; self-competence and self-liking.
- Self-competence (SC) is understood as one's instrumental value. Schmitt and Allik (2005) defined self-competence as ''feeling you are confident, capable and efficacious''(p. 625).
- Self-liking (SL) is defined as one's sense of intrinsic self value (Sinclair et al., 2010). Schmitt and Allik (2005) defined self-liking as ''feeling you are good and socially relevant'' (p. 625).
A central assumption in psychology has been that high self-esteem is beneficial and low self-esteem is detrimental (Crocker & Park, 2004). However, a more nuanced view of self-esteem is emerging, suggesting the benefits of high trait self-esteem are restricted to enhanced initiative and happiness (Baumiester, Campbell, Krueger, & Vohs, 2003). Crocker and Park (2004) point out that self-esteem is associated with self-focus interpersonal and achievement goals, and high self-esteem can produce costs in terms of loss of relatedness, increased competitiveness and lower concern for group wellbeing. These researchers argue psychologists should be less concerned in fostering the amount of self-esteem and more concerned with the processes by which individuals pursue it.
The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R)
The IES-R was designed as a measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and is a short, easily administered self-report questionnaire. It can be used for repeated measurements over time to monitor progress. It is best used for recent and specific traumatic events. It has 22 questions, 5 of which were added to the original Horowitz (IES) to better capture the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD (Weiss & Marmar, 1997). It is an appropriate instrument to measure the subjective response to a specific traumatic event in an adult or senior population. There are three subscales: intrusion (intrusive thoughts, nightmares, intrusive feelings and imagery, dissociative-like re-experiencing), avoidance (numbing of responsiveness, avoidance of feelings, situations, and ideas), and hyperarousal (anger, irritability, hypervigilance, difficulty concentrating, heightened startle), as well as a total subjective stress IES-R score.
Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)
The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) is a 20 item self-report questionnaire for young people between the ages of 6 and 17. It asks young people to rate how many depressive symptoms they have experienced in the last week. This measure is useful for tracking depressive symptoms over time.
The Brief-COPE is a 28 item self-report questionnaire designed to measure effective and ineffective ways to cope with a stressful life event. “Coping” is defined broadly as an effort used to minimize distress associated with negative life experiences. The scale is often used in health-care settings to ascertain how patients are responding to a serious diagnosis. It can be been used to measure how someone is coping with a wide range of adversity, including a cancer diagnosis, heart failure, injuries, assaults, natural disasters and financial stress. The scale can determine someone’s primary coping styles as either Approach Coping, or Avoidant Coping. In addition, The following subscales are reported: Self-distraction, Active coping, Denial, Substance use, Use of emotional support, Use of instrumental support, Behavioral disengagement, Venting, Positive reframing, Planning, Humor, Acceptance, Religion, & Self-blame.
The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)
The K10 is a psychological screening tool designed to identify adults with significant levels of psychological distress so that they may be appropriately managed. It has been widely used in the United States as well as in Australia, where it has been included in the Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (1997) and the Australian National Health Surveys.
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale – Revised (CESD-R)
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-R) is a 20 item self-report questionnaire used to measure symptoms of depression, and is particularly useful for tracking symptoms over time. It taps into nine different symptom groups of Major Depressive Disorder as defined by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fifth edition. These symptom groups are:
1 - Sadness (dysphoria)
2 - Loss of Interest (anhedonia)
3 - Appetite
4 - Sleep
5 - Thinking / concentration
6 - Guilt (worthlessness)
7 - Tired (fatigue)
8 - Movement (agitation)
9 - Suicidal ideation
When used in conjunction with DSM-V criteria and clinical judgment this scale can be used to inform diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder.
Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM)
The CORE Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) was conceived as a self-report measure of psychological distress designed to be administered before and after therapy. The client is asked to respond to 34 questions about how they have been feeling over the last week, using a 5-point scale ranging from 'not at all' to 'most or all of the time'. The 34 items of the measure cover four dimensions: - Subjective well-being - Problems/symptoms - Life functioning - Risk/harm The questionnaire is repeated after the last session of treatment; comparison of the pre-and post-therapy scores offers a measure of 'outcome' (i.e. whether or not the client's level of distress has changed, and by how much).
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)
The AUDIT is a 10 question self-report screening questionnaire designed to measure harmful alcohol use. It is widely used and useful for routine screening in community health settings and was developed in conjunction with the World Health Organization. It is sensitive to three factors of problematic alcohol use: - Hazardous heath impacts - Dependence symptoms - Behavioral or social problems of use The AUDIT differs from other self-report screening tests in that it was based on data collected from a large multinational sample, used a statistical rationale for item selection, emphasizes identification of hazardous drinking rather than long-term dependence and adverse drinking consequences, and focuses primarily on symptoms occurring during the recent past rather than "ever".
Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI)
The Appearance Anxiety Inventory is a 10 question self-report scale that measures the cognitive and behavioral aspects of body image anxiety in general, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in particular. This scale is useful as part of a diagnostic procedure for BDD as well as symptom monitoring during treatment.
Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)
The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) is a 10-item questionnaire, developed to assess the confidence people with ongoing pain have in performing activities while in pain. The PSEQ is applicable to all persisting pain presentation. It covers a range of functions, including household chores, socialising, work, as well as coping with pain without medication. It takes two minutes to complete.
Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7)
The GAD-7 is a brief measure of symptoms of anxiety, based on the generalised anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria described in DSM-IV. This assessment asks patients to evaluate their level of symptoms over the last two weeks, and can be used to track treatment progress over time. Given the simple language used in the assessment it is appropriate for individuals as young as 14 years. When used as a screening tool, further evaluation is recommended when the score is 10 or greater.
Using the threshold score of 10, the GAD-7 has a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 82% for generalised anxiety disorder. It is moderately good at screening three other common anxiety disorders – panic disorder (sensitivity 74%, specificity 81%), social anxiety disorder (sensitivity 72%, specificity 80%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (sensitivity 66%, specificity 81%) (Kroenke, et al. 2007).
Flourishing Scale (FS)
The Flourishing Scale is a brief 8-item summary measure of the respondent’s self-perceived success in important areas such as relationships, self-esteem, purpose, and optimism. The scale provides a single psychological well-being score and can be used to provide useful feedback for how to improve one’s life and provides useful stimulus for self-reflection. The Flourishing Scale is best used with individuals without clinic disorders, but rather with individuals seeking to enhance an already relatively adaptive lifestyle.
Experience in Close Relationship Scale – Short Form (ECR-S)
The Close Relationship Scale is a 12 item self-report adult attachment style questionnaire. Based on Ainsworth’s infant attachment styles literature, this scale measures maladaptive attachment in adulthoods who are in a romantic relationship. The ECR-S gives scores on the two factors important in adult attachment; anxiety and avoidance. The scale is designed to assess a general “trait” pattern of adult attachment as independently as possible from respondents’ current circumstances, and may be helpful in conceptualizing with clients how they approach close relationships.
Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a short 10-item self report questionnaire designed to identify mothers at risk for prenatal and and postnatal depression. Postpartum depression is the most common complication of childbearing and rates of help- seeking for postnatal depression are generally low, making screening important. The scale indicates how the mother has felt during the previous week. In doubtful cases it may be useful to repeat the tool after 2 weeks. The scale will not detect mothers with anxiety neuroses, phobias or personality disorders
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – Short Form (DASS-21)
The DASS-21 is the short form of the DASS-42, a self-report scale designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. As the three scales of the DASS have been shown to have high internal consistency and to yield meaningful discriminations, the scales should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure current state or change in state over time (e.g., in the course of treatment). This scale is suitable for clinical and non-clinical settings.
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – Long Form (DASS-42)
The DASS-42 is a 42 item self-report scale designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. The principal value of the DASS in a clinical setting is to clarify the locus of emotional disturbance, as part of the broader task of clinical assessment. The essential function of the DASS is to assess the severity of the core symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. As the scales of the DASS have been shown to have high internal consistency and to yield meaningful discriminations in a variety of settings, the scales should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure current state or change in state over time (e.g., in the course of treatment)
Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)
The ASSQ is a 27 question test filled in by parents or teachers of children or adolescents(6 to 17 years of age). It is designed to be an initial screen for Autism spectrum disorders and especially Aspergers syndrome in those with normal IQ or mild retardation. Each question has three possible answers; No, Somewhat, and Yes, and each question has a score from 0 to 2.
Obsessional Compulsive Inventory- Revised-Parent (ChOCI-R-P)
The ChOCI-R-P is a 32-item, two-part measure assessing the content and severity of compulsions and obsessions in children and adolescents aged 7-17 years. It is completed by a parent rather than being self-report. Part One of the measure looks at the child’s symptoms of compulsions and impairment associated with compulsions, and Part Two addresses the child’s obsessional symptoms and impairment associated with obsessional symptoms.
Children’s Obsessional Compulsive Inventory-Revised-Self Report (ChOCI-R- S)
The ChOCI-R is a 32-item, two-part measure assessing the content and severity of compulsions and obsessions in children and adolescents aged 7-17 years. The ChOCI-R is of similar format to the Child Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), as compulsions and obsessions are addressed separately, but is self-report rather than clinician rated. Part One of the measure looks at symptoms of compulsions and impairment associated with compulsions, and Part Two addresses obsessional symptoms and impairment associated with obsessional symptoms.
Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26)
The EAT-26 is used to identify the presence of “eating disorder risk” based on attitudes, feelings and behaviours related to eating. There are 26 items assessing general eating behaviour and five additional questions assessing risky behaviours. The measure can be used with adolescents and adults and with special risk samples such as athletes.
The scale has three subscales:
2. Bullimia and Food Preoccupation
3. Oral Contr
Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30)
The MCQ-30 is a short version of the original MCQ and assesses individual differences in five factors important in the metacognitive model of psychological disorders. In particular, unhelpful metacognitions may contribute to obsessive and compulsive symptoms, pathological worry and underpin trait anxiety. The five subscales of the MCQ-30 are:
cognitive confidence, positive beliefs about worry, cognitive self-consciousness, negative beliefs about uncontrollability of thoughts and danger, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts.
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire: Parent Report (MFQ-Parent)
The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (Short Version) – Parent Report is a 13-item measure assessing recent depressive symptomatology in children aged 6-17 years. The MFQ-P is parent-rated and asks the parent to report how their child has been feeling or acting in the past few weeks.
Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Self Report (MFQ-Self)
The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (Short Version) – Self Report is a 13-item measure assessing recent depressive symptomatology in children aged 6-17 years. The MFQ-Self is self-report and asks the child to report how they have been feeling or acting in the past two weeks
Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)
The PSWQ is a 16-item self-report scale designed to measure the trait of worry. The PSWQ has been found to distinguish patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) from other anxiety disorders. This questionnaire can be used in clinical and non-clinical settings.
Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale – Parent (SCAS-Parent)
The scale is completed by a parent of an anxious child between the ages of 6 to 18. It provides an overall measure of anxiety together with scores on six sub-scales each tapping a specific aspect of child anxiety.
– Panic attack and agoraphobia
– Separation anxiety
– Physical injury fears
– Social phobia
– Obsessive compulsive
– Generalized anxiety disorder / overanxious disorder
Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS)
This inventory consists of 35 questions measuring four sub-scales of perfectionism:
– Concern over mistakes and doubts about actions
– Excessive concern with parents’ expectations and evaluation
– Excessively high personal standards
– Concern with “precision, order and organization”
Setting excessively high standards is the most prominent feature of perfectionism, accompanied by tendencies for overly critical evaluations of one’s own behavior, expressed in over concern for mistakes and uncertainty regarding actions and beliefs.
Some individuals take pride in their perfectionistic nature and such beliefs can be a key target for psychological intervention. This scale can be useful in highlighting that being highly perfectionist is in fact unhelpful. This test is appropriate for people 15 years and older and is especially appropriate for individuals with critical parents, anorexia, OCD traits or an anxiety disorder. Perfectionistic beliefs may be an important underlying cause of a range of psychopathologies.